लीला चिटनिस (जन्म: 9 सितंबर, 1909)

September 09, 2017

लीला चिटनिस (जन्म: 9 सितंबर, 1909 - मृत्यु: 14 जुलाई, 2003) हिन्दी फ़िल्मों की एक प्रसिद्ध अभिनेत्री थीं। लीला चिटनिस ने 52 वर्ष तक अभिनय किया और अशोक कुमार की नायिका रहीं, तो बाद में अनेक फ़िल्मों में वे दिलीप कुमार, राजकपूर और देव आनंद की माँ की भूमिकाओं में आईं। लीला चिटनिस ने अभिनय करने के अलावा एक फ़िल्म 'आज की बात' (1955) का निर्माण और निर्देशन भी किया।

जीवन परिचय
हिंदुस्तानी सिनेमा में आने वाली स्नातक अभिनेत्रियों में दुर्गा खोटे के बाद लीला चिटनिस का नाम शिखर पर हैं। अपने जीवन में भी पति गजानन यशवंत चिटनिस से तलाक के बाद चार बच्चों की परवरिश उन्होंने बड़े जतन से की और 93 वर्ष की आयु में उनकी मृत्यु भी अमेरिका में उनके ज्येष्ठ पुत्र के घर हुई।
लीला चिटनिस ने अपने पति के साथ स्वतंत्रता संग्राम में इस तरह सहयोग किया कि क्रांतिकारी मानवेंद्र नाथ राय को अपने घर में ब्रिटिश पुलिस की निगाह से बचाकर रखा।
लीला चिटनिस पहली भारतीय अभिनेत्री हैं, जिन्होंने 1941 में 'लक्स' साबुन के लिए विज्ञापन फ़िल्म में काम किया। उनके पूर्व केवल हॉलीवुड नायिकाओं को लिया जाता था। परंतु 1930 वाले दौर में पारंपरिक समाज स्त्री को किसी तरह आज़ादी और सुविधा नहीं देता था, तब इन महिलाओं ने रंगमंच पर अभिनय किया है, फ़िल्में की हैं और स्वतंत्रता संग्राम में भी सहयोग किया है।
लीला चिटनिस को देविका रानी जैसी विरल सुंदर महिला के स्टूडियो में उनके प्रिय नायक अशोक कुमार के साथ अपनी काबिलियत सिद्ध करनी थी। देविका रानी कठोर प्रशासक थीं। प्रेमिका की भूमिकाओं से नए लोगों द्वारा विस्थापित होने के बाद कभी अपने नायक रहे कलाकारों की माँ की भूमिका करना आसान यात्रा नहीं थी। लीला चिटनिस अपनी लंबी पारी में कभी भी किसी विवाद में नहीं उलझीं।

दिल तुझको दिया (1987)
बिन माँ के बच्चे (1980)
सत्यय शिवम सुन्दरम (1978) Wife
जीवन मृत्यु (1970)
फूल और पत्थर (1966)
वक़्त (1965)
गाइड (1965)
दोस्ती (1964)
वटवारा (1961)
धर्मपुत्र (1961)
गंगा जमुना (1961)
हम दोनों (1961)
परख (1960)
काला बाज़ार (1960)
धूल का फूल (1959)
नया दौर (1957)
आज की बात (1955)
आवारा (1951)
बन्धन (1940)
कंगन (1939)
इंसाफ़ (1937)
श्री सत्यनारायण (1935)

Leela Chitnis (9 September 1909 – 14 July 2003) was an actress in the Indian film industry, active from 1930s to 1980s. In her early years she starred as a romantic lead, but she is best remembered for her later roles playing a virtuous and upright mother to leading stars.
She was born in Dharwad, Karnataka to an English literature professor. She was one of the first educated film actresses. After graduation she joined Natyamanwantar, a progressive theatre group that produced plays in her native Marathi language. The group's works were greatly influenced by Ibsen, Shaw and Stanislavsky. With the theatre group, Leela played the lead role in a series of comedies and tragedies and even founded her own repertory.
Chitnis' early stage work included comedy Usna Navra (1934) and with her own film group Udyacha Sansar. She started acting to support her four children. She started as an extra and went on to stunt films.

In Gentleman Daku ("Gentleman Thief") in 1937, Chitnis played a polished crook dressed in male apparel and was publicised in the Times of India as the first graduate society-lady from Maharashtra. By then she had already made her first major mark as an actress on the silver screen. Chitnis worked at Prabhat Pictures, Pune and Ranjit Movietone before going on to be the leading lady in Bombay Talkies.

Specialising in controversial films that challenged accepted societal norms, especially those regarding marriage and the invidious caste system, Bombay Talkies was having limited luck at the box office. But it bounced back with Kangan ("Bangles", 1939), which introduced Chitnis playing the lead role as the adopted daughter of a Hindu priest in love with the son of a local landlord who opposes the relationship and threatens the holy man. Her love, however, stands up to his father's prejudices, an unusual theme for the time, but one that appealed to the public imagination enough to ensure it success at the box office.

With Kangan's success, Leela replaced Bombay Talkies' ravishing leading lady Devika Rani. Leela made a particularly good partner with Devika Rani's leading man Ashok Kumar for a series of box-office hits such as Azad (Free, 1940), Bandhan (Ties, 1940) and Jhoola ("Swing", 1941) that broadly deal with societal issues.. Ashok Kumar was so impressed by her acting abilities that he admitted to having learnt how to speak with his eyes from her. In 1941 Chitnis, at the height of her popularity and glamour, created history of sorts by becoming the first Indian film star to endorse the popular Lux soap brand, a concession then only granted to top Hollywood heroines.

By the mid-1940s her career went downhill as the new leading ladies came in. Leela accepted the reality and in 1948 entered the next, and perhaps most renowned, phase of her career in Shaheed ("Martyr"). Cast as the hero's suffering, ailing mother, she played this role to perfection. For 22 years, Chitnis played the mother of the later leading men including Dilip Kumar, often playing an ailing mother or a mother going through hardships and struggling to bring up her offspring. In fact she created the archetype of the Hindi Film mother, which was continued by later actresses. Leela's maternal histrionics were portrayed in a range of films such as Awaara (The Vagabond, 1951), Ganga Jumna (The Confluence, 1961) and, in 1965, the runaway success Guide, based on the award-winning novel of the same name by R.K. Narayan. She was busy through the 1970s, but cut down her appearances thereafter before taking the final curtain call in Dil Tujhko Diya ("I Give My Heart to You") in 1985. She then emigrated to the United States in the late 1980s to join her children. She died in Danbury, Connecticut at a nursing home, at age 94.

Leela also briefly dabbled in movie-making, producing Kisise Na Kehna ("Don't Tell Anybody", 1942) and directing Aaj ki Baat ("The Talk of Today", 1955). She also wrote and directed a stage adaptation of Somerset Maugham's Sacred Flame and published her autobiography, Chanderi Duniyet, in 1981.
Chitnis belonged to the brahmin caste. However, her father adhered to Brahmo Samaj, a religious movement that rejected caste.

She married a much older man named Dr. Gajanan Yeshwant Chitnis at the age of 15 or 16, and quickly had four children. The couple supported India's struggle for independence from Britain and once risked arrest by harbouring Manabendra Nath Roy, a Marxist freedom fighter. After she divorced her husband, she worked as a school teacher and began acting on stage in melodramas typical of the time. She appeared in several movies, and went through a Bombay university to be hired by a major studio, Bombay Talkies; it hired only college graduates.

She had three sons Manavendra, Benoy and Raj. She lived with her eldest son in Connecticut in United States, until her death. She had three grandchildren then.