संजीव कुमार (मृत्यु- 6 नवम्बर 1985)

November 06, 2017

संजीव कुमार (जन्म- 9 जुलाई 1938 मुंबई, मृत्यु- 6 नवम्बर 1985 मुंबई) हिन्दी फ़िल्मों के भारतीय अभिनेता थे। इनका नाम हरिभाई जरीवाल था लेकिन फ़िल्मी दुनिया में ये अपने दूसरे नाम 'संजीव कुमार' के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हैं। फ़िल्मी दुनिया में संजीव कुमार ने नायक, सहनायक, खलनायक और चरित्र कलाकार भूमिकाओं को निभाया। इनके द्वारा अभिनीत प्रसिद्ध फ़िल्मों में 'कोशिश', 'शोले', 'अंगूर', 'त्रिशूल', 'पारस', 'अनामिका', 'खिलौना', 'मनचली', 'शतरंज के खिलाड़ी', 'सीता और गीता', 'आंधी', 'मौसम', 'विधाता', 'दस्तक', 'नया दिन नयी रात' आदि हैं।


जीवन परिचय
संजीव कुमार का जन्म मुंबई में 9 जुलाई 1938 को एक मध्यम वर्गीय गुजराती परिवार में हुआ था। वह बचपन से ही फ़िल्मों में बतौर अभिनेता काम करने का सपना देखा करते थे। इसी सपने को पूरा करने के लिए वह अपने जीवन के शुरुआती दौर मे रंगमंच से जुड़े और बाद में उन्होंने फ़िल्मालय के एक्टिंग स्कूल में दाख़िला लिया। इसी दौरान वर्ष 1960 में उन्हें फ़िल्मालय बैनर की फ़िल्म 'हम हिन्दुस्तानी' में एक छोटी सी भूमिका निभाने का मौक़ा मिला।


वर्ष 1962 में राजश्री प्रोडक्शन की निर्मित फ़िल्म 'आरती' के लिए उन्होंने स्क्रीन टेस्ट दिया जिसमें वह पास नहीं हो सके। सर्वप्रथम मुख्य अभिनेता के रूप में संजीव कुमार को वर्ष 1965 में प्रदर्शित फ़िल्म 'निशान' में काम करने का मौक़ा मिला। वर्ष 1960 से वर्ष 1968 तक संजीव कुमार फ़िल्म इंडस्ट्री में अपनी जगह बनाने के लिए संघर्ष करते रहे। फ़िल्म 'हम हिंदुस्तानी' के बाद उन्हें जो भी भूमिका मिली वह उसे स्वीकार करते चले गए। इस बीच उन्होंने 'स्मगलर', 'पति-पत्नी', 'हुस्न और इश्क', 'बादल', 'नौनिहाल' और 'गुनाहगार' जैसी कई फ़िल्मों में अभिनय किया लेकिन इनमें से कोई भी फ़िल्म बॉक्स ऑफिस पर सफल नहीं हुई।


वर्ष 1968 में प्रदर्शित फ़िल्म 'शिकार' में वह पुलिस ऑफिसर की भूमिका में दिखाई दिए। यह फ़िल्म पूरी तरह अभिनेता धर्मेन्द्र पर केन्द्रित थी फिर भी संजीव कुमार धर्मेन्द्र जैसे अभिनेता की उपस्थिति में अपने अभिनय की छाप छोड़ने में कामयाब रहे। इस फ़िल्म में उनके दमदार अभिनय के लिए उन्हें सहायक अभिनेता का 'फ़िल्म फ़ेयर अवार्ड' भी मिला।


वर्ष 1968 में प्रदर्शित फ़िल्म 'संघर्ष' में उनके सामने हिन्दी फ़िल्म जगत के अभिनय सम्राट दिलीप कुमार थे लेकिन संजीव कुमार अपनी छोटी सी भूमिका के जरिए दर्शकों में प्रसिद्ध रहे। इसके बाद 'आशीर्वाद', 'राजा और रंक', 'सत्यकाम' और 'अनोखी रात' जैसी फ़िल्मों में मिली कामयाबी के जरिए संजीव कुमार दर्शकों के बीच अपने अभिनय की धाक जमाते हुए ऐसी स्थिति में पहुंच गए जहां वह फ़िल्म में अपनी भूमिका स्वयं चुन सकते थे। वर्ष 1970 में प्रदर्शित फ़िल्म 'खिलौना' की जबर्दस्त कामयाबी के बाद संजीव कुमार बतौर अभिनेता अपनी अलग पहचान बना ली।


वर्ष 1970 में ही प्रदर्शित फ़िल्म 'दस्तक' में उनके लाजवाब अभिनय के लिए वह सर्वश्रेष्ठ अभिनेता के 'राष्ट्रीय पुरस्कार' से सम्मानित किया गया। वर्ष 1972 में प्रदर्शित फ़िल्म 'कोशिश' में उनके अभिनय का नया आयाम दर्शकों को देखने को मिला। फ़िल्म 'कोशिश' में संजीव कुमार ने गूंगे की भूमिका निभायी। बगैर संवाद बोले सिर्फ आंखों और चेहरे के भाव से दर्शकों को सब कुछ बता देना संजीव कुमार की अभिनय प्रतिभा का ऐसा उदाहरण था, जिसे शायद ही कोई अभिनेता दोहरा पाए।


फ़िल्म 'कोशिश' में संजीव कुमार अपने लड़के की शादी एक गूंगी लड़की से करना चाहते है और उनका लड़का इस शादी के लिए राजी नहीं होता है। तब वह अपनी मृत पत्नी की दीवार पर लटकी फ़ोटो को उतार लेते हैं। उनकी आंखों में विषाद की गहरी छाया और चेहरे पर क्रोध होता है। इस दृश्य के जरिए उन्होंने बिना बोले ही अपने मन की सारी बात दर्शकों तक बडे़ ही सरल अंदाज में पहुंचा दी थी। इस फ़िल्म में उनके लाजवाब अभिनय के लिए उन्हें दूसरी बार सर्वश्रेष्ठ अभिनेता का राष्ट्रीय पुरस्कार दिया गया।


'खिलौना', 'दस्तक' और 'कोशिश' जैसी फ़िल्मों की कामयाबी से संजीव कुमार शोहरत की बुंलदियों पर जा बैठे। अपनी फ़िल्मों की कामयाबी के बाद भी उन्होंने फ़िल्म 'परिचय' में एक छोटी सी भूमिका स्वीकार की और उससे भी वह दर्शकों का दिल जीतने में सफल रहे। इस बीच 'सीता और गीता', 'अनामिका' और 'मनचली' जैसी फ़िल्मों में अपने रूमानी अंदाज के जरिए दर्शकों के बीच प्रसिद्ध रहे।


वर्ष 1974 में प्रदर्शित फ़िल्म 'नया दिन नयी रात' में संजीव कुमार के अभिनय और विविधता के नए आयाम दर्शकों को देखने को मिले इस फ़िल्म में उन्होंने नौ अलग-अलग भूमिकाओं में अपने अभिनय की छाप छोड़ी। फ़िल्म में संजीव कुमार ने लूले-लंगड़े, अंधे, बूढे, बीमार, कोढ़ी, हिजड़े, डाकू, जवान और प्रोफ़ेसर के किरदार को निभाकर जीवन के नौ रसो को रूपहले पर्दे पर साकार किया। यह फ़िल्म उनके हर किरदार की अलग ख़ासियत की वजह से जानी जाती है लेकिन इस फ़िल्म में उनके एक हिजड़े का किरदार आज भी फ़िल्मी दर्शकों के मस्तिष्क पर छा जाता है।


अभिनय में एकरूपता से बचने और स्वंय को चरित्र अभिनेता के रूप में भी स्थापित करने के लिए संजीव कुमार ने अपने को विभिन्न भूमिकाओं में पेश किया। इस क्रम में वर्ष 1975 में प्रदर्शित रमेश सिप्पी की सुपरहिट फ़िल्म शोले में वह फ़िल्म अभिनेत्री जया भादुड़ी के ससुर की भूमिका निभाने से भी नहीं हिचके। हांलाकि संजीव कुमार ने फ़िल्म शोले के पहले जया भादुडी के साथ 'कोशिश' और 'अनामिका' में नायक की भूमिका निभाई थी। वर्ष 1977 में प्रदर्शित फ़िल्म 'शतरंज के खिलाड़ी' में उन्हें महान निर्देशक सत्यजीत रे के साथ काम करने का मौक़ा मिला। इस फ़िल्म के जरिए भी उन्होंने दर्शकों का मन मोहे रखा। इसके बाद संजीव कुमार ने 'मुक्ति' (1977), त्रिशूल (1978), 'पति पत्नी और वो' (1978), 'देवता' (1978), 'जानी दुश्मन' (1979), 'गृहप्रवेश' (1979), 'हम पांच' (1980), 'चेहरे पे चेहरा' (1981), 'दासी' (1981), 'विधाता' (1982), 'नमकीन' (1982), 'अंगूर' (1982) और 'हीरो' (1983) जैसी कई सुपरहिट फ़िल्मों के जरिए दर्शकों के दिल पर राज किया।


भारतीय सिनेमा जगत में संजीव कुमार को एक ऐसे बहुआयामी कलाकार के तौर पर जाना जाता है जिन्होंने नायक, सहनायक, खलनायक और चरित्र कलाकार भूमिकाओं से दर्शकों को अपना दीवाना बनाया। संजीव कुमार के अभिनय में एक विशेषता रही कि वह किसी भी तरह की भूमिका के लिए सदा उपयुक्त रहते थे। बाद में संजीव कुमार ने गुलज़ार के निर्देशन मे 'आंधी', 'मौसम', 'नमकीन' और 'अंगूर' जैसी कई फ़िल्मों में अपने अभिनय का जौहर दिखाया। वर्ष 1982 में प्रदर्शित फ़िल्म अंगूर में संजीव कुमार ने दोहरी भूमिका निभाई।


संजीव कुमार को दो बार सर्वश्रेष्ठ अभिनेता का राष्ट्रीय पुरस्कार मिला और दो बार सर्वश्रेष्ठ अभिनेता के फ़िल्म फ़ेयर पुरस्कार से सम्मानित किए गए हैं। वर्ष 1975 में प्रदर्शित फ़िल्म 'आंधी' के लिए सबसे पहले उन्हें सर्वश्रेष्ठ अभिनेता का फ़िल्म फ़ेयर पुरस्कार दिया गया। इसके बाद वर्ष 1976 में भी फ़िल्म 'अर्जुन पंडित' में बेमिसाल अभिनय के लिए सर्वश्रेष्ठ अभिनेता के फ़िल्म फ़ेयर पुरस्कार से नवाजे गए।


अपने दमदार अभिनय से दर्शकों के दिल में ख़ास पहचान बनाने वाले शानदार कलाकार 6 नवंबर 1985 को दिल का गंभीर दौरा पड़ने के कारण इस दुनिया को अलविदा कह गए।


Sanjeev Kumar (born Harihar Jethalal Jariwala 9 July 1938 – 6 November 1985) was a noted Indian film actor. He won several major awards including two National Film Awards for Best Actor for his performances in the movies Dastak (1971) and Koshish (1973). He acted in genres ranging from romantic dramas to thrillers. Kumar did not mind playing roles that were non-glamorous, such as characters well beyond his age. Movies like Arjun Pandit, Sholay and Trishul, along with the remakes of Tamil films into Hindi like Yehi Hai Zindagi, Naya Din Nayi Raat, Devta, and Ram Tere Kitne exemplify his talents. He also did suspense-thriller films like Qatl, Shikar, Uljhan and Trishna. Kumar also proved his ability to do comedy in films like Manchali, Itni Si Baat, Pati Patni aur Woh, Angoor, Biwi O Biwi and Hero. He is well remembered for his versatility and genuine portrayal of his characters. His double role in the film Angoor was listed among the 25 best acting performances of Indian cinema by Forbes India on the occasion of celebrating 100 years of Indian Cinema.



Sanjeev Kumar was born as Harihar Jethalal Jariwala (also referred to as Haribhai) in Surat, Gujarat, to a Gujarati Leuva Patel family and spent his early years in Surat. His family eventually settled in Mumbai. A stint in a film school led him to Bollywood, where he eventually became an accomplished actor. Kumar had two younger brothers and one sister.Kumar started his acting career as a stage actor, starting with IPTA in Mumbai and later joining the Indian National Theatre. Even as a stage actor, he had a penchant for playing older roles; at age 22, he played an old man in an adaptation of Arthur Miller's All My Sons.


Kumar made his film debut with a small role in Hum Hindustani in 1960. His first film as a protagonist was in Nishan (1965). In 1968, he acted alongside a famous actor of that time, Dilip Kumar, in Sangharsh.


The 1966 Gujarati film Kalapi is based on the poet Kalapi's life, with Kumar playing the titular role, Padmarani playing the role of his wife, Rama, and Aruna Irani as the love interest. The film was directed by Manhar Raskapur.Aruna Irani was paired opposite Sanjeev in another Gujarati film, Mare Javun Pele Par (1968).


In 1970, the movie Khilona brought Kumar recognition. In 1972, he played in an Indo-Iranian film, Subah aur Shaam. This was when director Gulzar first spotted him; later he cast Kumar in the roles of older men in Koshish (1973), Aandhi (1975) and Mausam (1975).


In the following year, in the play Damru directed by AK Hangal, Kumar again played the role of a 60-year-old with six children. He went on to star in the box office hits Seeta Aur Geeta (1972), Manchali (1973) and Aap Ki Kasam (1974). In 1973, he made a guest appearance during a song in a Tamil movie, Bharatha Vilas (1973). In the early 1970s he started working with Gulzar, a well-known director. He performed in nine movies with Gulzar, including Koshish (1973), Aandhi (1975), Mausam (1975), Angoor (1981) and Namkeen (1982). Hrishikesh Mukherjee directed him in Arjun Pandit.


Kumar won the BFJA Awards for Best Actor (Hindi) for his exemplary portrayal of a deaf and mute person in Koshish, in which the female lead was played by Jaya Bhaduri, who acted as his deaf and mute wife and was herself nominated for Best Actor award by Filmfare for the same role.


The producers and directors of the South wanted to remake their Tamil and Telugu films in Hindi with either Kumar or Rajesh Khanna in lead. It was these Hindi film remakes which elevated him to a great actor. The film Khilona and its Tamil version Engirundho Vandhaal were made simultaneously. Kumar reprised the role played by Thengai Srinivasan in Yehi Hai Zindagi which was a remake of Kaliyuga Kannan. He played the role which N.T. Rama Rao did originally in Devina Chesina Manushulu, in its Hindi version Takkar. He starred as lead in the film Shaandaar in 1974 which was a remake of Kasturi Nivasa which had Kannada actor Rajkumar in the lead. Tayaramma Bangarayya was remade as Shriman Shrimati, Navarathri was remade as Naya Din Naya Raat, Raman Ethanai Ramanadi was remade as Raam Kitne Tere Naam and Gnana Oli was remade as Devata. Kumar reprised the role played by R.Muthuraman in Alukuoru Aasai in its Hindi remake Itni Si Baat. He enacted the role played by AVM Rajan in Anadhai Aanandhan, in its Hindi version Chand Aur Bijli. He also acted in the Telugu remake of Swargam Narakam, as Swarg Narak (1978). Sivaji Ganesan gave Kumar a role in his home production Gauri (1968), which was a remake of Shanti (1965). The role played by S.S.Rajendran in Shanti was re-enacted by Kumar in Gauri.


Sanjeev Kumar's excellent comic timing entertained audiences in films like Seeta Aur Geeta, Biwi O Biwi (1981), Pati, Patni Aur Woh, Angoor (1982) and Hero (1983). He made guest appearances in two Tamil filmsm Bharata Vilas and Uyirandhavargal (a remake of Koshish).


His performances in films like Charitraheen, Angaare, Grihapravesh, Chehre Pe Chehra, Sawaal and Yaadgaar, though they became-box office flops, were appreciated by critics and during their subsequent screening on television. Kumar always demonstrated a willingness to take on unconventional roles that challenged him as an actor. His role as Mirza Sajjad Ali, a chess-obsessed Lucknowi (citizen of Lucknow), in Satyajit Ray's classic Shatranj Ke Khilari (1977) exemplified that aspect. Perhaps his best remembered roles were in the blockbuster films Sholay (1975) and Trishul (1978). His portrayal of the character Thakur, from Sholay, released in August 1975 was one of his stellar performances. In Naya Din Nayi Raat (1974), Sanjeev Kumar reprised the nine-role epic performance by Sivaji Ganesan in Navarathri (Tamil; 1964), which was also previously reprised by Akkineni Nageswara Rao in Navarathri (Telugu; 1966). This film enhanced his status and reputation as a serious player in Bollywood. He stood his ground against leading superstars such as Rajesh Khanna in Bandhan and Aap Ki Kasam; Amitabh Bachchan and Shashi Kapoor in the Yash Chopra multi-star cast film Trishul (1978) and Dilip Kumar in the Subhash Ghai film Vidhaata (1982).


During the early 1980s, Sanjeev Kumar took to acting primarily in supporting roles. In 1980, he starred in the Punjabi movie Fauji Chacha.


He did three films opposite Tamil actress L. Vijaya Lakshmi, including Husn Aur Ishq and Badal which became hits. Their first film was Alibaba Aur 40 Chor which was unsuccessful. His Raja Aur Runk, released in 1968, was a great success. He did Kangan, Rivaaz, Zindagi, Beraham, Archana and Do Ladkiyan opposite Mala Sinha. He did Priya, Anubhav, Gustaaki Maaf, Bachpan and Khud-Daar with Tanuja. He was paired with Rakhee in Angaare, Paras, Trishna, Shriman Shrimati and Hamare Tumhare. His hits with Leena Chandavarkar included Apne Rang Hazar, Manchali and Anhonee. He was paired regularly with Sulakshana Pandit in films such as Uljhan and Waqt Ki Deewar and with Moushmi Chatterjee in Itni Si Baat and Daasi.


He has done many regional films in different languages including Marathi, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Sindhi and his mother tongue Gujarati.Kumar remained single all his life. He had proposed to Hema Malini in 1973 and they remained in touch even after he suffered his first heart attack in 1976. Later he was involved with actress Sulakshana Pandit, but both of them remained unmarried.Kumar refused to marry her, as a result of which Sulakshana vowed to never marry anyone.


His closest friends from the film industry were Rajesh Khanna, Hema Malini, Shashi Kapoor, Sharmila Tagore, Tanuja, Deven Varma, Sivaji Ganesan and B. Nagi Reddy. Among his juniors he was a very good friend of actor, producer, and director Sachin Pilgaonkar and actress Sarika.Kumar was born with a congenital heart condition, and many members of his family had not lived past 50. After his first heart attack, he underwent a bypass in the US. However, on 6 November 1985, at the age of 47, he suffered a massive heart attack, which resulted in his death. His younger brother Nikul died before him, while his other brother Kishore died six months later.Ironically for an actor who had played many elderly roles, he died at less than 50 years of age.


Over ten movies starring Sanjeev Kumar were released after his death, with the last one, Professor Ki Padosan, released in 1993. At the time of his death, only about three-fourths of this movie was complete, and it was eventually decided to alter the story line in the second half to explain the absence of Kumar's character.



Awards
National Film Awards
National Film Award for Best Actor – Won
1971 Dastak – Hamid
1973 Koshish – Haricharan



Filmfare Awards
Sanjeev Kumar was nominated for 14 Filmfare Awards,[9] thrice as Best Supporting Actor and the remaining as Best Actor. He won the awards twice as Best Actor and once as Best Supporting Actor, as shown below.


Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Won
1976 Aandhi – J.K.
1977 Arjun Pandit – Arjun Pandit
Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor – Won
1969 Shikar – Inspector Rai


Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Nominated
1971 Khilona – Vijaykamal S. Singh
1974 Koshish – Hari Charan Mathur
1976 Sholay – Thakur Baldev Singh
1977 Mausam – Dr. Amarnath Gill
1978 Yehi Hai Zindagi – Anand Narayan
1978 Zindagi – Raghu Shukla
1979 Devata – Tony/Tarun Kumar Gupta
1979 Pati Patni Aur Woh – Ranjeet Chhadha
1983 Angoor – Ashok R. Tilak
Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor – Nominated
1979 Trishul – Raj Kumar 'R.K.' Gupta
1983 Vidhaata – Abu Baba


Other awards
1974 - BFJA Best Actor for Koshish
1969 - Naval Stars Awards, Shanoo Varun Trophy by S.M. Nanda
1971 - Surat Jilla Leuva Patidar Gnyati.
1975 - Cinegoers Council (Delhi) film Awards
1976 - Lion Club of North Calcutta Actor of the year for Mousam
1984 - Maratha Seva Sangh Dist Khed
Award for best actor (stage) for the Gujarati play Koi no Ladakh Vayo
Uttar Pradesh film Patraka Sangh
Kalashri Art & Network "Lifetime Achievement Millenium 2000 Award" at Surat
18th National Award "Bharat Puraskar" by Information & Broadcast State Minister Mrs. Nandini Satapthi at Shanmukhanand Hall (Mumbai)
Army Officers Voice Association Trophy
Andhra Pradesh Film Journalist Award
Chitralok Cine Serjak Award (Ahemdabad)



Government recognition
A road has been named after him in Surat, Gujarat as Sanjeev Kumar Marg, which was inaugurated by Sunil Dutt.


A school has been named after him in his home town Surat, Gujarat, and was inaugurated by the then Mayor Kadir K Pirzada.


A postage stamp bearing his likeness was released by India Post to honour him on 3 May 2013.


An auditorium was opened in his home town Surat by the Gujarat State at the cost of 108cr, named Sanjeev Kumar Auditorium, which was inaugurated on 14 February 2014 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi who was then the CM of Gujarat. He is the first and only (as of 2014) Indian film actor to have an auditorium named after him.


Philanthropy
The Sanjeev Kumar Foundation is a national level development organisation (NGO) directly benefiting children and their families every year, mainly focusing on education, healthcare, environment, culture and nutrition. From 2015 onwards the foundation has also been the sponsor of the annual Sanjeev Kumar Drama Competition held by the Surat Municipal Corporation. The awards and cash prizes are given in memory of Sanjeev Kumar to the best actor, actress, director and backstage technician every year.