कोफ़ी अन्नान ( जन्म- 8 अप्रैल, 1938)

April 08, 2017

कोफ़ी अन्नान ( जन्म- 8 अप्रैल, 1938, गोल्ड कोस्ट, घाना) कुशल कूटनीतिज्ञ हैं, जिन्होंने संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ के सातवें महासचिव के रूप में भी अपनी सेवाएँ दीं। वे 1962 से 1974 तक और फिर 1974 से 2006 तक संयुक्त राष्ट्र में कार्यरत रहे। वे 1 जनवरी, 1997 से 31 दिसम्बर, 2006 तक दो कार्यकालों के लिये संयुक्त राष्ट्र के महासचिव रहे। कोफ़ी अन्नान को संयुक्त राष्ट्र के साथ 2001 में नोबेल शांति पुरस्कार से सह-पुरस्कृत किया गया था।


परिचय
कोफ़ी अन्नान का जन्म 8 अप्रैल, सन 1938 को गोल्ड कोस्ट, घाना के कुमसी शहर में हुआ था। उन्होंने 1954 से 1957 तक मफिन्तिस्म स्कूल से शिक्षा ग्रहण की। इसके बाद वे सन 1957 में फ़ोर्ड फ़ाउंडेशन की छात्रवृत्ति पर अमरीका गए। 1958 से 1961 तक उन्होंने मिनेसोटा राज्य के सन्त पौल शहर में मैकैलेस्टर कॉलेज में अर्थशास्त्र की पढ़ाई की और 1961 में स्नातक की डिग्री मिली। कोफ़ी अन्नान ने 1961 में अंतरराष्ट्रीय संबंध में जिनेवा के ग्रेजुएट इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ़ इंटरनैशनल स्टडीज़ से डी.ई.ए. की डिग्री प्राप्त की। 1971 से जून, 1972 में ऐल्फ़्रॅड स्लोअन फ़ॅलो के तौर पर एम.आई.टी. से मैनेजमेंट में एम.एस. की डिग्री ली। अंग्रेज़ी, फ्रेंच, क्रू, अकान की अन्य बोलियों और अन्य अफ़्रीकी भाषाओं पर कोफ़ी अन्नान का समान अधिकार है।


कोफ़ी अन्नान ने 1962 में संयुक्त राष्ट्र की संस्था विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन के लिए एक बजट अधिकारी के रूप में काम शुरू कर दिया था। वे विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन के साथ 1965 तक रहे।
1965 से 1972 तक उन्होंने इथियोपिया की राजधानी अद्दीस अबाबा में संयुक्त राष्ट्र की इकॉनोमिक कमिशन फ़ॉर ऐफ़्रिका के लिये काम किया।
अगस्त, 1972 से मई, 1974 तक जिनेवा में संयुक्त राष्ट्र के लिये प्रशासनिक प्रबंधन अधिकारी के तौर पर रहे।
कोफ़ी अन्नान 1973 की अरब-इज़राइली जंग के बाद मई, 1974 से नवंबर, 1974 तक मिस्र में शांति अभियान में संयुक्त राष्ट्र द्वारा कार्यरत असैनिक कर्मचारियों के मुख्य अधिकारी के पद पर कार्यरत रहे। बाद में उन्होंने संयुक्त राष्ट्र छोड़ दिया और घाना लौट गए।
वे 1974 से 1976 तक घाना में पर्यटन के निदेशक के रूप में रहे।
1984 में कोफ़ी अन्नान संयुक्त राष्ट्र के बजट विभाग के अध्यक्ष के रूप में न्यूयॉर्क वापिस आए।
1987 में उन्हें संयुक्त राष्ट्र के मानव संसाधन विभाग और 1990 में बजट एवं योजना विभाग का सहायक महासचिव नियुक्त किया गया।
मार्च, 1992 से फ़रवरी, 1993 तक वे शांति अभियानों के सहायक महासचिव रहे।
मार्च, 1993 में उन्हें संयुक्त राष्ट्र का अवर महासचिव नियुक्त किया गया और वे दिसम्बर, 1996 तक इस पद पर कार्यरत रहे।
महासचिव
1 जनवरी, 1997 से 31 दिसम्बर, 2006 तक कोफ़ी अन्नान संयुक्त राष्ट्र के महासचिव रहे। 2001 में उन्हें और संयुक्त राष्ट्र को नोबेल शांति पुरस्कार से सह-पुरस्कृत किया गया। 13 दिसम्बर, 1996 में संयुक्त राष्ट्र सुरक्षा परिषद ने कोफ़ी अन्नान की सिफ़ारिश की, ताकि वह पूर्व महासचिव बुतरस घाली का स्थान ले सकें। बुतरस घाली के दूसरे कार्यकाल को अमेरिका के वीटो का सामना करना पड़ा था।


Kofi Atta Annan ( born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006. Annan and the UN were the co-recipients of the 2001 Nobel Peace Prize. He is the founder and chairman of the Kofi Annan Foundation, as well as chairman of The Elders, an international organization founded by Nelson Mandela.


Born in Kumasi, Annan went on to study economics at Macalester College, international relations from the Graduate Institute Geneva and management at MIT. Annan joined the UN in 1962, working for the World Health Organization's Geneva office. He went on to work in several capacities at the UN Headquarters including serving as the Under-Secretary-General for peacekeeping between March 1992 and December 1996. He was appointed as the Secretary-General on 13 December 1996 by the Security Council, and later confirmed by the General Assembly, making him the first office holder to be elected from the UN staff itself. He was re-elected for a second term in 2001, and was succeeded as Secretary-General by Ban Ki-moon on 1 January 2007.


As the Secretary-General, Annan reformed the UN bureaucracy; worked to combat HIV, especially in Africa; and launched the UN Global Compact. He has been criticized for not expanding the Security Council and faced calls for resignation after an investigation into the Oil-for-Food Programme. After leaving the UN, he founded the Kofi Annan Foundation in 2007 to work on international development. In 2012, Annan was the UN–Arab League Joint Special Representative for Syria, to help find a resolution to ongoing conflict there.Annan quit after becoming frustrated with the UN's lack of progress with regard to conflict resolution. In September 2016, Annan was appointed to lead a UN commission to investigate the Rohingya crisis.


Kofi Annan was born in the Kofandros section of Kumasi in the Gold Coast (now Ghana) on 8 April 1938. His twin sister Efua Atta, who died in 1991, shared the middle name Atta, which in the Akan means 'twin'. Annan and his sister were born into one of the country's Ashanti and Fante aristocratic families; both of their grandfathers and their uncle were tribal chiefs.


In the Akan names tradition, some children are named according to the day of the week on which they were born, and/or in relation to how many children precede them. Kofi in Akan is the name that corresponds with Friday.Annan has said his surname rhymes with "cannon" in English.


From 1954 to 1957, Annan attended the elite Mfantsipim school, a Methodist boarding school in Cape Coast founded in the 1870s. Annan has said that the school taught him "that suffering anywhere concerns people everywhere". In 1957, the year Annan graduated from Mfantsipim, the Gold Coast gained independence from the UK and began using the name "Ghana".


In 1958, Annan began studying economics at the Kumasi College of Science and Technology, now the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology of Ghana. He received a Ford Foundation grant, enabling him to complete his undergraduate studies in economics at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota, United States, in 1961. Annan then completed a diplôme d'études approfondies DEA degree in International Relations at The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, from 1961–62. After some years of work experience, he studied at the MIT Sloan School of Management (1971–72) in the Sloan Fellows program and earned a master's degree in management.


Annan is fluent in English, French, Akan, some Kru languages and other African languages.


In 1962, Kofi Annan started working as a Budget Officer for the World Health Organization, an agency of the United Nations (UN).[17] From 1974 to 1976, he worked as the Director of Tourism in Ghana. In 1980 he became the head of personnel for the office of the UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) in Geneva. In 1983 he became the director of administrative management services of the UN Secretariat in New York. In the late 1980s, Annan was appointed as an Assistant Secretary-General of the UN in three consecutive positions: Human Resources, Management and Security Coordinator (1987–1990); Program Planning, Budget and Finance, and Controller (1990–1992); and Peacekeeping Operations (March 1993 – December 1996).


When Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali established the Department of Peacekeeping Operations in 1992, Annan was appointed to the new department as Deputy to then Under Secretary-General Marrick Goulding. Annan was subsequently appointed to succeed Goulding and assumed the office of USG DPKO in March 1993. He was therefore Head of peacekeeping during the battle of Somalia and the resulting collapse of the UNOSOM II peacekeeping mission, and during the Rwandan Genocide of 1994. On 29 August 1995, while Boutros-Ghali was unreachable on an airplane, Annan instructed United Nations officials to "relinquish for a limited period of time their authority to veto air strikes in Bosnia." This move allowed NATO forces to conduct Operation Deliberate Force and made him a favorite of the United States. According to Richard Holbrooke, Annan's "gutsy performance" convinced the United States that he would be a good replacement for Boutros-Ghali.


In 2003 Canadian ex-General Roméo Dallaire, who was force commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda, claimed that Annan was overly passive in his response to the imminent genocide. In his book Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda (2003), General Dallaire asserted that Annan held back UN troops from intervening to settle the conflict, and from providing more logistical and material support. Dallaire claimed that Annan failed to provide responses to his repeated faxes asking for access to a weapons depository; such weapons could have helped Dallaire defend the endangered Tutsis. In 2004, ten years after the genocide in which an estimated 800,000 people were killed, Annan said, "I could and should have done more to sound the alarm and rally support."


In his book Interventions: A Life in War and Peace, Annan again argued that DPKO could have made better use of the media to raise awareness of the violence in Rwanda and put pressure on governments to provide the troops necessary for an intervention. Annan explained that the events in Somalia and the collapse of the UNOSOM II mission fostered a hesitation amongst UN Member states to approve robust peacekeeping operations. As a result, when the UNAMIR mission was approved just days after the battle, the resulting force lacked the troop levels, resources and mandate to operate effectively.


Annan served as Under-Secretary-General from March 1994 to October 1995. He was appointed a Special Representative of the Secretary-General to the former Yugoslavia, serving for five months before returning to his duties as Under-Secretary-General in April 1996.


In 2001, its centennial year, the Nobel Committee decided that the Peace Prize was to be divided between the UN and Annan. He was awarded the Peace Prize for having revitalized the UN and for having given priority to human rights. The Nobel Committee also recognized his commitment to the struggle to containing the spread of HIV in Africa and his declared opposition to international terrorism.
In 1965, Kofi Annan married Titi Alakija, a Nigerian woman from a well-to-do family. Several years later they had a daughter, Ama, and later a son, Kojo. The couple separated in the late 1970s and divorced in 1983. In 1984, Annan married Nane Maria Lagergren, a Swedish lawyer at the U.N and a maternal half-niece of Raoul Wallenberg. Mr. Annan also had a loyal and long-serving chauffeur John Miller (Mr. Miller) who still is a close friend and confidant to Kofi and his son Kojo.


Honours and awards
Honours
2000: Companion of the Order of the Star of Ghana
2000: Grand Cross Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
2001: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania
2002: Knight Commander of the Most Courteous Order of Lesotho
2005: Grand Collar of the Order of Liberty (Portugal)
2006: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
2007: Grand Decoration of Honour in Gold with Sash for Services to the Republic of Austria
2007: Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) from Queen Elizabeth II (UK)
2008: Grand Cross 1st class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany


Awards
2000: Kora All Africa Music Awards in the category of Lifetime Achievement
2001: Nobel Foundation, The Nobel Peace Prize, jointly presented to Kofi Annan and the United Nations
2002: winner of the "Profiles in Courage Award", given by the JFK Memorial Museum
2002: The American Whig-Cliosophic Society James Madison Award for Distinguished Public Service.
2003: Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
2003: Freedom Prize of the Max Schmidheiny Foundation at the University of St. Gallen
2004: Freedom medal
2006: International World Order of Culture, Science and Education, Award of the European Academy of Informatization, Belgium
2006: Inter Press Service, International Achievement Award for Annan's lasting contributions to peace, security, and development
2006: Olof Palme Prize
2007: Wooden Crossbow, special award from the Swiss World Economic Forum
2007: People in Europe Award of Verlagsgruppe Passau
2007: MacArthur Foundation, MacArthur Award for International Justice
2007: North-South Prize of the Council of Europe
2008: Peace of Westphalia Prize
2008: Harvard University Honors Prize
2008: Gottlieb Duttweiler Award
2008: Peace of Westphalia Prize – Münster (Westfalen)
2008: Open Society Award – CEU Business School Budapest
2011: Gothenburg Award 
2012: Confucius Peace Prize