शेरशाह सूरी

May 22, 2020

शेरशाह सूरी (अंग्रेज़ी: Sher Shah Suri, जन्म: 1485-86 हिसार अथवा 1472 सासाराम - मृत्यु: 22 मई 1545 बुन्देलखण्ड) का वास्तविक नाम 'फ़रीद ख़ाँ' था। शेरशाह सूरी का भारत के इतिहास में विशेष स्थान है। शेरशाह, सूर साम्राज्य का संस्थापक था। इसके पिता का नाम हसन खाँ था। शेरशाह को शेर ख़ाँ के नाम से भी जाना जाता है। इतिहासकारों का कहना है कि अपने समय में अत्यंत दूरदर्शी और विशिष्ट सूझबूझ का आदमी था। इसकी विशेषता इसलिए अधिक उल्लेखनीय है कि वह एक साधारण जागीदार का उपेक्षित बालक था। उसने अपनी वीरता, अदम्य साहस और परिश्रम के बल पर दिल्ली के सिंहासन पर क़ब्ज़ा किया था।

Sher Shah Suri (1486 – 22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in India, with its capital in Sasaram in modern-day Bihar. He introduced the currency of rupee. An ethnic Afghan, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun.

During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new economic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and organized the postal system of the Indian Subcontinent. Some of his strategies and contributions were later idolized by the Mughal emperors, most notably Akbar. Suri further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country. The influence of his innovations and reforms extended far beyond his brief reign; his arch foe, Humayun, referred to him as “Ustad-I-Badshahan”, teacher of kings.