श्रीपाद अमृत डांगे-जन्म: (10 अक्टूबर 1899)

October 10, 2016

श्रीपाद अमृत डांगे-जन्म: 10 अक्टूबर 1899 - मृत्यु: 22 मई 1991) का भारत के प्रारम्भिक कम्युनिस्ट नेताओं में बहुत महत्त्वपूर्ण स्थान है। श्रीपाद अमृत डांगे भारतीय कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी के संस्थापक सदस्यों में से एक थे।वे बम्बई के रहने वाले थे तथा उन्होंने भारत में समाजवादी विचारों के प्रसार करने के लिए 'द सोशलिस्ट' नामक समाचार पत्र प्रकाशित करना प्रारम्भ किया।उन्होंने मज़दूरों में चेतना जाग्रत की तथा उन्हें अपने हितों के लिए संघर्ष करते हुए प्रोत्साहित किया।श्रीपाद अमृत डांगे द्वितीय और चौथी लोकसभा के सदस्य चुने गये। कानपुर षडयंत्र केस के तहत जिन 4 समाजवादी नेताओं पर मुकदमा चलाया गया था, उनमें डांगे भी सम्मिलित थे। इसके अंतर्गत उन्हें 4 वर्ष की सज़ा दी गई।उन्होंने 'गांधी व लेनिन' नामक पुस्तक भी लिखी, जिसमें इन दोनों नेताओं तथा उनके विचारों का तुलनात्मक विश्लेषण किया जाता है।


Shripad Amrit Dange (10 October 1899 – 22 May 1991) was a founding member of the Communist Party of India (CPI) and a stalwart of Indian trade union movement. During the British Raj, Dange was arrested by the British authorities for communist and trade union activities and was jailed for an overall period of 13 years. After India's Independence, a series of events like Sino-Soviet split, Sino-Indian war, and the revelation that while in jail, Dange had written letters to the British Government, offering them cooperation, led to a split in the Communist Party of India, in 1964. The breakaway Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) emerged stronger both in terms of membership and their performance in the Indian Elections. Dange, who remained the Chairman of the CPI till 1978, was removed in that year because the majority of party workers were against Dange's political line of supporting Indian National Congress, and Indira Gandhi, the then Congress Prime Minister. He was expelled from the CPI in 1981. He joined the All India Communist Party (AICP), and later, United Communist Party of India. Towards the end, Dange got increasingly marginalised in the Indian Communist movement. He was also a well-known writer and was the founder of Socialist the first socialist weekly in India. Dange played an important role in the formation of Maharashtra state.


Shripad Amrutpant Dange was born in 1899, in the village of Karanjgaon in Niphad Taluka of Nashik District, Maharashtra. His father worked in Mumbai as government officer and was major landowner of the area and lived in one palace like house in Karanjgaon. Dange was sent to study in Pune. He was expelled from college for organising a movement against compulsory teaching of the Bible. While in work, Dange was exposed to conditions of workers when he undertook voluntary work in the textile mill areas of Mumbai. Dange was drawn into active politics by the fervour of nationalist movement against the British rule in India.Bal Gangadhar Tilak, a veteran leader of Indian National Congress from Maharashtra, the earliest proponent of swaraj (complete independence) greatly inspired young Dange. Later, when Mahatma Gandhi launched the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920, Dange gave up his studies and joined the Independence movement.


He became interested in Marxism, while following the Russian Revolution of 1917. He grew increasingly skeptical about Gandhism, especially about Gandhi's promotion of cottage industries as the sole solution for India's economic ills, while overlooking possibilities of an industrial economy.


In 1921, Dange published a pamphlet titled Gandhi Vs. Lenin, a comparative study of approaches of both the leaders; but, Lenin coming out as better of the two. This work proved to be a turning point in Dange's life. Prominent Marxist leader M.N. Roy read the work and went on to meet its young author, when he came to Mumbai. Ranchoddas Bhavan Lotvala, a flour mill owner from Mumbai who 'concerned himself for radical causes', also read this treatise and was impressed by its contents. Lotvala sponsored Dange's study of Marxism for several years, and together they built up a library of Marxist Literature and published translations of classics.


In 1922, with Lotvala's help, Dange launched the English weekly, Socialist, the first Indian Marxist journal. Later Mohit Sen, Dange's contemporary and a well-known communist intellectual, wrote that Dange's articles in the Socialist impressed Lenin himself.