शिवराज विश्वनाथ पाटिल - जन्म: (12 अक्टूबर, 1935)

October 12, 2016

शिवराज विश्वनाथ पाटिल  जन्म: (12 अक्टूबर, 1935) एक प्रसिद्ध राजनीतिज्ञ, वर्तमान पंजाब राज्य के राज्यपाल, केंद्रशासित प्रदेश चंडीगढ़ के प्रशासक और पूर्व लोकसभा अध्यक्ष हैं। शिवराज पाटिल सर्वसम्मति से दसवीं लोक सभा के अध्यक्ष निर्वाचित हुए थे जिसका गौरव बहुत कम लोगों को ही प्राप्त हुआ है। अपने उदार दृष्टिकोण, सौम्य स्वभाव और अनुकरणीय धैर्य व सदैव निष्पक्षता बरतने के गुण के कारण सभा की कार्यवाहियों को चलाने में वह उत्कृष्ट संचालक साबित हुए। ये प्रधानमंत्री मनमोहन सिंह की सरकार में गृह मंत्री भी रहें है।



जीवन परिचय

शिवराज पाटिल का जन्म 12 अक्तूबर, 1935 को महाराष्ट्र राज्य के लातूर ज़िले के चाकूर गांव में हुआ था। उन्होंने ओसमानिया विश्वविद्यालय, हैदराबाद से विज्ञान में स्नातक की उपाधि प्राप्त की। तत्पश्चात् उन्होंने बम्बई विश्वविद्यालय में विधि का अध्ययन किया। विधि में स्नातकोत्तर की उपाधि प्राप्त करने के बाद, पाटिल ने प्राध्यापक के रूप में जीवन शुरू किया और लगभग छः महीने तक अध्यापन कार्य किया। उसके बाद उन्होंने अपने गृह-नगर लातूर में वकालत शुरू करने का निर्णय किया। कुछ ही दिनों बाद उनका ध्यान सार्वजनिक जीवन की ओर आकर्षित हुआ। वर्ष 1967 में, वह लातूर नगरपालिका के अध्यक्ष निर्वाचित हुए और 1969 तक इस पद पर बने रहे तथा 1971 से 1972 तक दोबारा इस पद पर रहे। लातूर नगरपालिका के अध्यक्ष के रूप में पाटिल ने नगरपालिका प्रशासन में, विशेषकर प्राथमिक और माध्यमिक शिक्षा, अस्पतालों तथा भूमिगत जल निकासी व्यवस्था, जल आपूर्ति योजनाओं एवं नगर आयोजना आदि के बारे में अनेक नवीनताओं का प्रवर्तन किया।



राजनीतिक परिचय

शिवराज पाटिल का विधायी और संसदीय जीवन, 1972 में उनके महाराष्ट्र विधान सभा के लिए निर्वाचित हो जाने के साथ ही शुरू हुआ। वह 1972 से 1977 तक और पुनः 1977 से 1979 तक राज्य विधान सभा के सदस्य रहे। वह 1974-75 के दौरान सरकारी उपक्रमों संबंधी समिति के सभापति रहे। पाटिल 1975 में उप मंत्री बने और उनके पास विधि और न्याय, सिंचाई तथा नयाचार विभाग रहे और वह इस पद पर 1976 तक रहे। वह 5 जुलाई, 1977 को राज्य विधान सभा के उपाध्यक्ष निर्वाचित किए गए और 13 मार्च, 1978 तक इस पद पर बने रहे। उनकी ईमानदारी, विवादास्पद मामलों को निष्पक्षता से निपटाने और असीम धैर्य के लिए उनकी बहुत ही प्रशंसा की गई और 17 मार्च, 1978 को उन्हें सर्वसम्मति से महाराष्ट्र विधान सभा का अध्यक्ष निर्वाचित किया गया तथा वह 6 दिसम्बर, 1979 तक इस पद पर रहे।



लोकसभा सांसद

शिवराज पाटिल पहली बार 1980 में भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस के उम्मीदवार के रूप में लातूर संसदीय निर्वाचन क्षेत्र से लोक सभा के लिए निर्वाचित हुए। वह उसी निर्वाचन क्षेत्र से आठवीं, नौवीं, दसवीं, ग्यारहवीं और बारहवीं लोक सभा में क्रमशः 1984, 1989, 1991, 1996 और 1998 में पुनर्निर्वाचित हुए। पाटिल 12 मई, 1980 से 7 सितम्बर, 1980 तक संसद सदस्यों के वेतन तथा भत्तों संबंधी संयुक्त समिति के सदस्य रहे और 8 सितम्बर, 1980 से 18 अक्तूबर, 1980 तक इस समिति के सभापति रहे।
केंद्रीय मंत्रिपरिषद में

सन 1980 के बाद वाले दशक में शिवराज पाटिल ने केंद्रीय मंत्रिपरिषद में महत्त्वपूर्ण पदों पर कार्य किया। 19 अक्तूबर, 1980 को पाटिल केंद्रीय मंत्रिपरिषद में राज्य मंत्री बनाए गए और निम्नलिखित विभागों में रहे-


Shivraj Vishwanath Patil (born 12 October 1935) is an Indian politician who was the Governor of the state of Punjab and Administrator of the Union Territory of Chandigarh from 2010 to 2015.Previously, he was the Speaker of the 11th Lok Sabha from 1991 to 1996 and served in Manmohan Singh's cabinet as Union Minister of Home Affairs from 2004 to 2008. He also served in the Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi cabinets as Minister of Defence during the 1980s.


Patil resigned from the post of Home Minister on 30 November 2008, following widespread criticism raised after terrorist attacks on Mumbai, and took moral responsibility for the security lapse that led to the attacks.


Patil was born in 1935 in the village of Chakur in the Latur district (Marathwada region) of the then princely state of Hyderabad, now Maharashtra, India. He attended Osmania University, Hyderabad, earning a degree in Science and studied Law at Bombay University. During 1967–69, he was involved in local government (Latur Municipality). Keshavrao Sonawane and Manikrao Sonawane helped Shivaraj Patil to get his first break to stand from Latur Constituency.


Patil belongs to the Lingayat community. He married Vijaya Patil in June 1963. He is a follower of Sathya Sai Baba.


From 1973 to 1980, he was legislator of Latur Rular constituency of the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly for two terms of 1973 to 1978 and 1978 to 1980 during which time he held various positions such as Chairman of Public Undertakings Committee, Deputy Minister (Law & Judiciary, Irrigation, Protocol), Deputy Speaker of the Assembly and Speaker of the Assembly.


In 1980, he was elected to the 7th Lok Sabha from Latur constituency. By 1999, he had won seven successive Lok Sabha elections in 1980, 1984, 1989, 1991, 1996, 1998 and 1999. In 2004 Lok Sabha election, he lost to Bharatiya Janata Party candidate Rupatai Patil Nilangekar.


First inducted in the Indira Gandhi-led government in as Minister of State for Defence (1980–82), he was given independent charge of the Commerce Ministry (1982–83), from where he was shifted to Science and Technology, Atomic Energy, Electronics, Space and Ocean Development (1983–84).


During 1983–86, he was Vice-President of CSIR India. He also served on various committees including those on Defence, External Affairs, Finance, Salaries and Allowances of members of parliament.


In the Rajiv Gandhi government, he was Minister for Personnel, Defence production and later held independent charge of Civil Aviation and Tourism.


He has also held a number of important positions in the party ever since Sonia Gandhi took over the presidency of the party. He is largely known for introducing the Outstanding Parliamentarian Award, India in 1992. He was the chairman of the manifesto committee of the party during the 1999 Lok Sabha election.


As speaker of the Lok Sabha, he had begun or contributed in initiatives on information dissemination to members of the Parliament (through computerisation and modernisation), construction of Parliament Library Building and broadcast of Lok Sabha proceedings, including live broadcast of Question Hour of both houses of the parliament.


Between 1991–1995, he was a member/leader of Indian parliamentary delegations to various international parliamentary conferences.


He became Home Minister in 2004. A former Lok Sabha speaker, Shivraj Patil lost in the 2004 polls from Latur constituency in Maharashtra, but has still landed up the second most important position in the Union Cabinet—that of the Home Minister. He was elected to the Rajya Sabha in July 2004. Widely seen as an ineffective minister, his tenure as home minister was marred by one debacle after another and he faced increasing calls for his resignation, eventually forcing it due to the mishandling in the events leading up to and after the 2008 Mumbai attacks.


United States Ambassador David Mulford in an embassy cable described his removal after the Mumbai terrorist attack as inevitable and called him "inept" and "asleep on the watch".


Patil is accused for not sending the Central Reserve Police Force to Nandigram, even after repeated requests by the West Bengal government, to restore law and order in the area and the events resulted in police firing and killing of men and women in Nandigram.


Patil's name was considered a likely candidate in 2007 presidential election. However, after the Left opposed his candidacy, Sonia Gandhi proposed Pratibha Patil, Governor of Rajasthan, as the presidential candidate. Shivraj Patil was later considered a possible candidate for the post of Vice-President of India. His extensive parliamentary experience and his reputation for fairness were said to be the main advantages on his side.


On 30 November 2008, just four days after Bombay blasts, Patil resigned from his position of Home Minister in Union Cabinet taking moral responsibility for the security lapse that led to the November 2008 terrorist attacks in Mumbai.