जगदीश चंद्र बोस- मृत्यु: (23 नवंबर, 1937)

November 23, 2016

श्री जगदीश चंद्र बोस (जन्म- 30 नवंबर, 1858, मेमनसिंह गाँव, बंगाल (वर्तमान बांग्लादेश); मृत्यु- 23 नवंबर, 1937, गिरिडीह, बंगाल (वर्तमान बांग्लादेश)) भारत के प्रसिद्ध भौतिकविद् तथा पादपक्रिया वैज्ञानिक थे। जगदीश चंद्र बोस ने कई महान ग्रंथ भी लिखे हैं, जिनमें से कुछ निम्नलिखित विषयों पर आधारित हैं, जैसे- सजीव तथा निर्जीव की अभिक्रियाएँ (1902), वनस्पतियों की अभिक्रिया (1906), पौधों की प्रेरक यांत्रिकी (1926) इत्यादि।


शिक्षा

जगदीश चंद्र बोस ने ग्यारह वर्ष की आयु तक गाँव के ही एक विद्यालय में शिक्षा ग्रहण की। उसके बाद ये कलकत्ता आ गये और 'सेंट जेवियर स्कूल' में प्रवेश लिया। जगदीश चंद्र बोस की जीव विज्ञान में बहुत रुचि थी फिर भी भौतिकी के एक विख्यात प्रो. फादर लाफोण्ट ने बोस को 'भौतिक शास्त्र' के अध्ययन के लिए प्रेरित किया। भौतिक शास्त्र में बी. ए. की डिग्री प्राप्त करने के बाद 22 वर्षीय बोस चिकित्सा विज्ञान की शिक्षा के लिए लंदन चले गए। मगर स्वास्थ्य के ख़राब रहने की वजह से इन्होंने चिकित्सक (डॉक्टर) बनने का विचार छोड़ दिया और कैम्ब्रिज के 'क्राइस्ट महाविद्यालय' से बी. ए. की डिग्री ले ली।


अध्यापन

जगदीश चंद्र बोस वर्ष 1885 में स्वदेश लौट कर आये और भौतिक विषय के सहायक प्राध्यापक के रूप में 'प्रेसिडेंसी कॉलेज' में अध्यापन करने लगे। यहाँ वह 1915 तक कार्यरत रहे। उस समय भारतीय शिक्षकों को अंग्रेज़ शिक्षकों की तुलना में एक तिहाई वेतन दिया जाता था। इसका श्री जगदीश चंद्र बोस ने बहुत विरोध किया और तीन वर्षों तक बिना वेतन लिए काम करते रहे, जिसके कारण उनकी आर्थिक स्थिति ख़राब हो गई और उन पर काफ़ी कर्ज़ भी हो गया था। इस कर्ज़ को चुकाने के लिये उन्होंने अपनी पुश्तैनी ज़मीन भी बेच दी। चौथे वर्ष जगदीश चंद्र बोस की जीत हुई और उन्हें पूरा वेतन दे दिया गया। बोस एक बहुत अच्छे शिक्षक भी थे, वह कक्षा में पढ़ाने के लिए बड़े पैमाने पर वैज्ञानिक प्रदर्शनों का प्रयोग करते थे। बोस के ही कुछ छात्र सत्येंद्रनाथ बोस आगे चलकर प्रसिद्ध भौतिक शास्त्री बने। प्रेसिडेंसी कॉलेज से सेवानिवृत्त होने पर 1917 ई. में इन्होंने बोस रिसर्च इंस्टिट्यूट, कलकत्ता की स्थापना की और 1937 तक इसके निदेशक रहे।
प्रयोग और सफलता

    जगदीश चंद्र बोस ने सूक्ष्म तरंगों (माइक्रोवेव) के क्षेत्र में वैज्ञानिक कार्य तथा अपवर्तन, विवर्तन और ध्रुवीकरण के विषय में अपने प्रयोग आरंभ कर दिये थे।
    लघु तरंगदैर्ध्य, रेडियो तरंगों तथा श्वेत एवं पराबैंगनी प्रकाश दोनों के रिसीवर में गेलेना क्रिस्टल का प्रयोग बोस के द्वारा ही विकसित किया गया था।
    मारकोनी के प्रदर्शन से 2 वर्ष पहले ही 1885 में बोस ने रेडियो तरंगों द्वारा बेतार संचार का प्रदर्शन किया था। इस प्रदर्शन में जगदीश चंद्र बोस ने दूर से एक घण्टी बजाई और बारूद में विस्फोट कराया था।
    आजकल प्रचलित बहुत सारे माइक्रोवेव उपकरण जैसे वेव गाईड, ध्रुवक, परावैद्युत लैंस, विद्युतचुम्बकीय विकिरण के लिये अर्धचालक संसूचक, इन सभी उपकरणों का उन्नींसवी सदी के अंतिम दशक में बोस ने अविष्कार किया और उपयोग किया था।
    बोस ने ही सूर्य से आने वाले विद्युत चुम्बकीय विकिरण के अस्तित्व का सुझाव दिया था जिसकी पुष्टि 1944 में हुई।
    इसके बाद बोस ने, किसी घटना पर पौधों की प्रतिक्रिया पर अपना ध्यान केंद्रित कर दिया। बोस ने दिखाया कि यांत्रिक, ताप, विद्युत तथा रासायनिक जैसी विभिन्न प्रकार की उत्तेजनाओं में सब्जियों के ऊतक भी प्राणियों के समान विद्युतीय संकेत उत्पन्न करते हैं।

'नाइट' की उपाधि

    1917 में जगदीश चंद्र बोस को "नाइट" की उपाधि प्रदान की गई तथा शीघ्र ही भौतिक तथा जीव विज्ञान के लिए 'रॉयल सोसायटी लंदन' के फैलो चुन लिए गए।
    बोस ने अपना पूरा शोधकार्य किसी अच्छे (महगें) उपकरण और प्रयोगशाला से नहीं किया था, इसलिये जगदीश चंद्र बोस एक अच्छी प्रयोगशाला बनाने की सोच रहे थे।
    'बोस इंस्टीट्यूट' (बोस विज्ञान मंदिर) इसी विचार से प्रेरित है जो विज्ञान में शोध कार्य के लिए राष्ट्र का एक प्रसिद्ध केन्द्र है।

मृत्यु

जगदीश चंद्र बोस की 23 नवंबर, 1937 को बंगाल के गिरिडीह नगर में मृत्यु हुई।


Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose,( 30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis,[ was a polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist, and an early writer of science fiction. Living in British India, he pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent.IEEE named him one of the fathers of radio science. Bose is considered the father of Bengali science fiction, and also invented the crescograph, a device for measuring the growth of plants. A crater on the moon has been named in his honour.


Born in Munshiganj, Bengal Presidency during the British Raj (present-day Bangladesh),[12] Bose graduated from St. Xavier's College, Calcutta. He went to the University of London to study medicine, but could not pursue studies in medicine because of health problems. Instead, he conducted his research with the Nobel Laureate Lord Rayleigh at Cambridge and returned to India. He joined the Presidency College of the University of Calcutta as a professor of physics. There, despite racial discrimination and a lack of funding and equipment, Bose carried on his scientific research. He made remarkable progress in his research of remote wireless signalling and was the first to use semiconductor junctions to detect radio signals. However, instead of trying to gain commercial benefit from this invention, Bose made his inventions public in order to allow others to further develop his research.


Bose subsequently made a number of pioneering discoveries in plant physiology. He used his own invention, the crescograph, to measure plant response to various stimuli, and thereby scientifically proved parallelism between animal and plant tissues. Although Bose filed for a patent for one of his inventions because of peer pressure, his objections to any form of patenting was well known. To facilitate his research, he constructed automatic recorders capable of registering extremely slight movements; these instruments produced some striking results, such as quivering of injured plants, which Bose interpreted as a power of feeling in plants. His books include Response in the Living and Non-Living (1902) and The Nervous Mechanism of Plants (1926).


Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, 30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis, was a polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist, and an early writer of science fiction. Living in British India, he pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent. IEEE named him one of the fathers of radio science.Bose is considered the father of Bengali science fiction, and also invented the crescograph, a device for measuring the growth of plants. A crater on the moon has been named in his honour.


Born in Munshiganj, Bengal Presidency during the British Raj (present-day Bangladesh),Bose graduated from St. Xavier's College, Calcutta. He went to the University of London to study medicine, but could not pursue studies in medicine because of health problems. Instead, he conducted his research with the Nobel Laureate Lord Rayleigh at Cambridge and returned to India. He joined the Presidency College of the University of Calcutta as a professor of physics. There, despite racial discrimination and a lack of funding and equipment, Bose carried on his scientific research. He made remarkable progress in his research of remote wireless signalling and was the first to use semiconductor junctions to detect radio signals. However, instead of trying to gain commercial benefit from this invention, Bose made his inventions public in order to allow others to further develop his research.


Bose subsequently made a number of pioneering discoveries in plant physiology. He used his own invention, the crescograph, to measure plant response to various stimuli, and thereby scientifically proved parallelism between animal and plant tissues. Although Bose filed for a patent for one of his inventions because of peer pressure, his objections to any form of patenting was well known. To facilitate his research, he constructed automatic recorders capable of registering extremely slight movements; these instruments produced some striking results, such as quivering of injured plants, which Bose interpreted as a power of feeling in plants. His books include Response in the Living and Non-Living (1902) and The Nervous Mechanism of Plants (1926).



Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose was born in Munshiganj, Bengal Presidency, (present-day Bangladesh) on 30 November 1858. His father, Bhagawan Chandra Bose, was a leading member of the Brahmo Samaj and worked as a deputy magistrate and assistant commissioner in Faridpur, Bardhaman and other places.


Bose's education started in a vernacular school, because his father believed that one must know one's own mother tongue before beginning English, and that one should know also one's own people. Speaking at the Bikrampur Conference in 1915, Bose said:


At that time, sending children to English schools was an aristocratic status symbol. In the vernacular school, to which I was sent, the son of the Muslim attendant of my father sat on my right side, and the son of a fisherman sat on my left. They were my playmates. I listened spellbound to their stories of birds, animals and aquatic creatures. Perhaps these stories created in my mind a keen interest in investigating the workings of Nature. When I returned home from school accompanied by my school fellows, my mother welcomed and fed all of us without discrimination. Although she was an orthodox old-fashioned lady, she never considered herself guilty of impiety by treating these ‘untouchables’ as her own children. It was because of my childhood friendship with them that I could never feel that there were ‘creatures’ who might be labelled 'low-caste'. I never realised that there existed a 'problem' common to the two communities, Hindus and Muslims.


Bose joined the Hare School in 1869 and then St. Xavier's School at Kolkata. In 1875, he passed the Entrance Examination (equivalent to school graduation) of the University of Calcutta and was admitted to St. Xavier's College, Calcutta. At St. Xavier's, Bose came in contact with Jesuit Father Eugene Lafont, who played a significant role in developing his interest in natural sciences. He received a BA from the University of Calcutta in 1879.


Bose wanted to go to England to compete for the Indian Civil Service. However, his father, a civil servant himself, cancelled the plan. He wished his son to be a scholar, who would “rule nobody but himself.”Bose went to England to study Medicine at the University of London. However, he had to quit because of ill health.The odour in the dissection rooms is also said to have exacerbated his illness.


Through the recommendation of Anandamohan Bose, his brother-in-law (sister's husband) and the first Indian wrangler, he secured admission in Christ's College, Cambridge to study natural sciences. He received a BA (Natural Sciences Tripos) from the University of Cambridge and a BSc from the University of London in 1884,[1] and a DSc from the University of London in 1896. Among Bose's teachers at Cambridge were Lord Rayleigh, Michael Foster, James Dewar, Francis Darwin, Francis Balfour, and Sidney Vines. At the time when Bose was a student at Cambridge, Prafulla Chandra Roy was a student at Edinburgh. They met in London and became intimate friends. Later he was married to Abala Bose, the renowned feminist and social worker.


One of the important influence on Bose was Sister Nivedita who supported him by organized the financial support and editing his manuscripts, she made sure that Bose was able to continue with and share his work.


Honours
Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE, 1903)
Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI, 1912)
Knight Bachelor (1917)
Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS, 1920)
Member of the Vienna Academy of Sciences, 1928
President of the 14th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1927.
Member of Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters in 1929.
Member of the League of Nations' Committee for Intellectual Cooperation
Founding fellow of the National Institute of Sciences of India (now the Indian National Science Academy)
The Indian Botanic Garden was renamed in his honour as the Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden on 25 June 2009.



Publications


Bust of Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose which is placed in the garden of Birla Industrial & Technological Museum
Journals
Nature published about 27 papers.
Bose J.C. (1902). "On Elektromotive Wave accompanying Mechanical Disturbance in Metals in Contact with Electrolyte". Proc. Roy. Soc. 70 (459–466): 273–294. doi:10.1098/rspl.1902.0029.
Bose J.C. (1902). "Sur la réponse électrique de la matière vivante et animée soumise à une excitation — Deux procédés d'observation de la réponse de la matière vivante". Journal de Physique. 4 (1): 481–491.



Books
Response in the Living and Non-living, 1902
Plant response as a means of physiological investigation, 1906
Comparative Electro-physiology: A Physico-physiological Study, 1907
Researches on Irritability of Plants, 1913
Life Movements in Plants (vol.1), First Published 1918, Reprinted 1985
Life Movements in Plants, Volume II, 1919
Physiology of the Ascent of Sap, 1923
The physiology of photosynthesis, 1924
The Nervous Mechanisms of Plants, 1926
Plant Autographs and Their Revelations, 1927
Growth and tropic movements of plants, 1929
Motor mechanism of plants, 1928